Ovaries are small glands on the uterus responsible for egg production and the release of women hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. Sometimes, ovarian cells lead to uncontrolled cell growth and cause ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, it is undetectable at an early stage due to rare symptoms until cancer spreads to other organs of the body.

 

 

What is ovarian cancer?

When the cells in the ovary begin to replicate out of control, they form a tumor. If the tumor is left untreated, it can enter other body parts and be called ovarian cancer. It can have early signs, but they’re mild, so most of the time, people neglect them.

 

What are the causes and risk factors of ovarian cancer?

There is no specific cause of it, but the following risk factors can lead to it arise:

  • Older age
  • Inherited genes mutation
  • Other genes mutation
  • Family history
  • Estrogen replacement therapy

 

What are the types of ovarian cancer?

Women ovary is made up of three types of cells; therefore, each can develop into a different kind of tumor:

i. Epithelial cancer

This kind of cancer is developed in the outer layer of the ovary, which comprises epithelial tissues.90% of women’s ovarian cancer is epithelial cancer.

ii. Stromal cancer

This kind of cancer is developed by hormonal producing cells. 7% of women ovarian cancer is stromal cancer.

iii. Germ cell cancer

This kind of ovarian cancer is developed in the egg-producing cells. This type of cancer is rare.

 

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer

When ovarian cancer enters other organs, the following symptoms start to arise:

i. Abdominal or pelvic pain

It is prevalent when ovarian cancer enters the pelvic area but is more similar to cramps pain, so women assume this abdominal pain is harmless.

ii. Lack of appetite

The fluid builds up in the abdomen and causes bloating. As a result, there’s a lack of appetite. Sometimes, it can lead to nausea, indigestion or upset stomach.

iii. Frequent urination

Sometimes it causes frequent feelings of urination due to pelvic compression on the bladder or when ovarian cells have studded outside the bladder wall.

iv. Unexplained exhaustion

Women with ovarian cancer frequently experience severe back pain when cancer spreads to the abdomen or fluid accumulates in the pelvic area.

v. Constipation

One of the significant symptoms is constipation. Sometimes, heartburn is also associated with it, which can cause stomach discomfort.

vi. Severe pain having sex

Women with this cancer experience severe pain while having sex and frequent bleeding. These two symptoms are widespread in patients with this cancer.

vii. Weight loss

When you don’t change your diet plan or exercise routine, sudden weight loss can signify cancer in women.

viii. Difficulty in breathing

Women with ovarian cancer can experience difficulty breathing when cancer is at peak stage due to significant area possession by cancer in the abdomen and exerting force on the lungs.

 

How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

It is much easier to treat it if it is diagnosed at an early stage. Your doctor may do the following tests to diagnose your cancer:

  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Abdominal and pelvic CT scan
  • Blood test to measure cancer antigen 125 levels
  • Biopsy

 

How is ovarian cancer treated?

The treatment depends on how far it is spread. It may include one or more than one treatment option given below:

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Surgery
  3. Targeted therapy
  4. Hormone therapy

 

Can ovarian cancer be prevented?

There is no way to eliminate your risks of developing it ultimately, but the following steps can lower the risk:

  • Taking oral birth control pills
  • Breastfeeding
  • Pregnancy
  • Tube ligation
  • Hysterectomy

Ovarian cancer is developed due to abnormal cells growth in the ovary. Sometimes it can center other body parts and cause metastasis. The risk factors are age, genes, family history and some therapies. Three kinds of cancer may develop, depending on the ovary’s cells where it arises. The common symptoms are abdominal pain, lack of appetite, exhaustion, constipation, frequent urination, severe pain during sex, weight loss, and difficult breathing. It can be diagnosed by many methods, such as ultrasound or blood tests. Further, it may be treated by one or a combination of more than one treatment method. It is not possible to eliminate its development risks completely, but some preventions can lower the risks.

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